The former, imported from Italy, oozed nostalgia for an Arcadian golden age; its shepherds were courtiers and poets who, like the knights-errant of chivalric romance, turned their backs on reality. Another reaction appeared in the picaresque novel , a genre initiated with the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes Passing from master to master, he depicted life from underneath. Miguel de Cervantes , the preeminent figure in Spanish literature, produced in Don Quixote part 1, ; part 2, the prototype of the modern novel.
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Where Don Quixote saw and attacked an advancing army, Sancho saw only a herd of sheep; what Sancho perceived as windmills were menacing giants to the questing knight-errant. She too published Italian-inspired short stories, in the collections Novelas amorosas y ejemplares ; Eng. The writings of St. John of the Cross achieved preeminence through poems of exalted style expressing the experience of mystic union. What this great Spanish playwright did possess was a remarkable sense of stagecraft and the ability to make the most intricate plot gripping. Lope, who claimed authorship of more than 1, comedias , towered over his contemporaries.
Lope ransacked the literary past for heroic themes, chosen to illustrate aspects of the national character or of social solidarity. The cloak-and-sword play, which dominated drama after Lope, was pure entertainment, exploiting disguise, falling in and out of love, and false alarms about honour.
In it affairs of the lady and her gallant are often parodied through the actions of the servants. The cloak-and-sword play delighted by the dexterity of its intricate plotting, its sparkling dialogue, and the entangled relationships depicted between the sexes. Although their names were suppressed and their works left largely unperformed for centuries, several women dramatists of the Siglo de Oro left extant plays. She also penned short dramatic panegyrics, romances , and other books. In poetry and prose the early 17th century in Spain was marked by the rise and spread of two interrelated stylistic movements, often considered typical of the Baroque.
Authors shared an elitist desire to communicate only with the initiated, so that writings in both styles present considerable interpretive difficulties.
- Stop Plays randomly.
- The beginnings of prose;
- Neverending Dream;
Poets writing in this style created hermetic vocabulary and used stilted syntax and word order, with expression garbed and disguised in Classical myth , allusion , and complicated metaphor , all of which rendered their work sometimes incomprehensible. The other stylistic movement, conceptismo , played on ideas as culteranismo did on language. Aiming at the semblance of profundity, conceptista style was concise, aphoristic, and epigrammatic and thus belonged primarily to prose, especially satire. Concerned with stripping appearances from reality, it had as its best outlet the essay.
The Scavenger and The Swindler. His best comedies provide subtle critiques of urban mores, combining laughter with tragic foreboding La dama duende [; The Phantom Lady ]. His tragedies probe the human predicament, exploring personal and collective guilt Las tres justicias en una [ c.
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His best-known plays, appropriately classified as high drama, include El alcalde de Zalamea c. These liturgical plays range in their artistry from the immediate metaphorical appeal of El gran teatro del mundo c. Culteranismo and conceptismo , although symptoms rather than causes of decline, contributed to stifling imaginative literature, and, by the close of the 17th century, all production characterizing the Siglo de Oro had essentially ceased.
In Charles II, the last monarch of the Habsburg dynasty , died without an heir, thereby provoking the War of the Spanish Succession —14 , a European conflict over control of Spain. Men of letters began again to study abroad, discovering how far Spain had diverged from the intellectual course of western Europe.
New inquiries into the national heritage led scholars to unearth forgotten medieval literature. Another major encyclopaedic talent, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos , produced streams of reports, essays, memoirs, and studies on agriculture, the economy, political organization, law, industry, natural science, and literature, as well as ways to improve them, in addition to writing Neoclassical drama and poetry. Torres Villarroel experimented with all literary genres, and his collected works, published —99, are fertile sources for studying 18th-century character, aesthetics , and literary style.
Several women writers emerged during the Enlightenment and were active from onward in the male-dominated Spanish theatre. They wrote Neoclassic drama: comedias lacrimosas tearful plays , zarzuelas musical comedies , sainetes , Romantic tragedies, and costumbrista comedies.
The Wise Heart
Early 19th-century Spanish literature suffered as a result of the Napoleonic Wars and their economic repercussions. Spain experienced soaring inflation, and manpower across the peninsula was at low ebb as a result of emigration and military service. These problems were further aggravated by the loss of its American colonies. Some, however, recognize Cadalso and several lesser cultivators of Gothic fiction as 18th-century Spanish antecedents. Romanticism in Spain was, in many respects, a return to its earlier classics, a continuation of the rediscovery initiated by 18th-century scholars.
Important formal traits of Spanish Romantic drama—mingling genres, rejecting the unities, diversifying metrics—had characterized Lope de Vega and his contemporaries, whose themes reappeared in Romantic garb. Spanish Romanticism, typically understood as having two branches, had no single leader.
Ibn Tufayl on Learning and Spirituality without Prophets and Scriptures
Prolific , facile , and declamatory, Zorrilla produced huge numbers of plays, lyric and narrative verse collections, and enormously popular rewrites of Siglo de Oro plays and legends; he was treated as a national hero. One major Romantic theme concerned liberty and individual freedom. Rimas influenced more 20th-century Spanish poets than any other 19th-century work. A number of notable women writers emerged under Romanticism. Her poems sounded many feminist notes, although she in later life became conservative.
She also wrote 16 full-length original plays, 4 of which were major successes.
by Nora Ephron (2006)
While poetry and theatre claimed the major honours, Spanish Romanticism also produced many novels—but none that rivaled those of Scottish contemporary Sir Walter Scott. Costumbrismo began before Romanticism, contributing to both Romanticism and the later realism movement through realistic prose.
Such writings, realistically observing everyday life and regional elements, bridged the transition to realism. Early revival novels are of interest more for their powers of observation and description a continuation of costumbrismo than for their imaginative or narrative quality. He was a prolific writer, his works ranging from poetry and newspaper articles to critical essays and memoirs. Included among these many novels is his masterpiece, Fortunata y Jacinta —87; Fortunata and Jacinta , a paradigm of Spanish realism.
The novel has been seen as an allegory of the sterility of the upper classes, but its complexity transcends facile summary. His later works represent naturalism or reflect turn-of-the-century spiritualism. He also wrote more than 20 successful and often controversial plays. Realistic drama in Spain produced few masterpieces but established a bourgeois comedy of manners further developed in the 20th century. In poetry, realistic trends produced little of note.
He used a realistic approach to treat contemporary moral, religious, and political conflicts in his works, although his work also shows Romantic and medieval themes. The novel acquired new seriousness, and critical, psychological, and philosophical essays gained unprecedented importance. A provocative, somewhat unsystematic thinker, Unamuno aimed at sowing spiritual disquiet. An artistic critic and sensitive miniaturist, he excelled in precision and ekphrasis description of a visual work of art. In his later works he experimented with Impressionism and Surrealism.
The three stages of his literary evolution exhibit radical aesthetic change, beginning with exquisite , sometimes decadent , erotic Modernista tales, as in his four Sonatas —05; Eng. For example: Graham 61 , Mair 24 , Watson According to him, Zhuang Zhou only thinks he is awake and is confused about his own identity therefore. Allinson rewrites allegory or maybe restores the original order of narrative as he thinks?
In fact, he did not know whether he was Zhou who dreamed he was a butterfly or a butterfly who dreamed he was Zhou. Between Zhou and the butterfly there was necessarily a dividing; just this is what meant by the trans- formations of things. Allinson 82 It is obvious in the version of Allinson that the entire transformation happens in the consciousness of Zhou only. He dreams and does not know who he is and everything becomes clear and logical when he awakes.
It does not seem unusual or strange to our Western mind. It is just a good example of a faulty projection of Western views onto Eastern ideas. It demonstrates how important the translation from such a complex language may be, not to mention the multidimensional character of the very text. Moeller proposes another English version of the allegory appealing to the Chinese text and commentaries left by Guo Xiang.
Although the differ- ences seem to be trivial, they change the deepest meaning of the allegory completely: Once Zhuang Zhou dreamt — and then he was a butterfly, a fluttering butterfly, self-content and in accord with its intentions. The butterfly did not know about Zhou. Suddenly it awoke — and then it was fully and completely Zhou.
One does not know whether there is a Zhou becoming a butterfly in a dream or whether there is a butterfly becoming a Zhou in a dream.
Summary of Decameron tales - Wikipedia
There is a Zhou and there is a butterfly, so there is necessarily a distinction between them. This is called: the changing of things. Cogito and Xin Moeller criticizes Giles because of Western interpretation of the con- sciousness.
The notion of consciousness reveals one of the main differences between Western and Eastern mode of thinking and helps us understand the distinct interpretation of the relationship between reality and illusion. I will use the singular, nevertheless, talking about authorship of the Zhuangzi because this is not crucial issue for the theme of the article. It seems as though there is a True Ruler, but there is no particu- lar evidence for Him. We may have faith in His ability to function, but cannot see His form.
He has attributes but is without form. It is concerned to be rather essence than a feature of man. Going into the problem of human essence, Zhuangzi talks about xin like all ancient Chinese philosophers. Xin is physical heart first of all. According to Harold H. Oshima, although thinking is the property of the xin, it by no means exhausts its functions. Xin is the place not only of thoughts, but of feelings, will, faith, imagination, guilt, etc. Memory, Forgetting And Fitting It is a usual thing that people identify reality and illusion by the means of reason independently of culture they live in.
Even if they are the ultimate empiricists, they usually consider these main features of reasoning mem- ory, critical doubt, evaluation of facts and ideas and definition of concepts sufficient for distinguishing between reality and illusion.